KOJIC ACID:Kojic acid is made from several different types of fungi. Its also a byproduct when certain foods ferment, including Japanese sake, soy sauce, and rice wine.
Kojic acid inhibits and prevents the formation of tyrosine, which is an amino acid thats needed to produce melanin. Melanin is the pigment that affects hair, skin, and eye color. Because it inhibits the production of melanin, kojic acid can have a lightening effect.Kojic acid is often used topically to treat a number of different cosmetic conditions. Its been approved for use in cosmetic products in concentrations of1 percent or less. Its most often used as askin-lighteningagent.
Kojic acid can be found in a number of different types of cosmetic products, including powders, serums, creams, cleansers, and soaps. Powders should be mixed with water or lotion, depending on the product instructions. Some products, like soaps and cleansers, are meant to be washed off immediately. Others, like creams and serums, are designed to be left on and absorbed into the skin. (However, kojic acid overall has relatively poor absorption rates below the surface of the skin.)
Some products like face masks are designed to be used only on occasion. Creams and cleansers may be used daily.
Products containing kojic acid are most commonly used on the face and hands, but can be used on all non-sensitive areas of the body.
PINE BARK:Pine bark extract provides many benefits to the skin, including reducing the signs of aging. A small 2012 study on postmenopausal women found that pine bark extractimproved hydration and elasticity of skin.
NIACINAMIDE:Niacinamide, also called nicotinamide, is a form of vitamin B-3, an essential nutrient. A B3 deficiencycan lead to disorders of the skin, kidneys, and brain. Taking niacinamide can help prevent B-3 deficiency.
And theres much more to this nutrient, especially when it comes to general skin health. Although more research is needed, topical niacinamide may help treat certain skin conditions, including acne and eczema.
VITAMIN C:Vitamin C is touted as one of the best anti-aging ingredients on the market and the key to maintaining a smooth, even, and glowy complexion.
Although youre probably getting vitamin C in your diet, theres no way to guarantee that its going straight to your skin. Using serums and other topical products is the most direct way to reap these benefits.
Vitamin C can help fade pigmentation (more on this below!) and smooth the skins surface to reduce dullness. This gives skin a youthful glow.